Charles Darwin. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, Vol. I.
Table of Contents:
- Part I. THE DESCENT OR ORIGIN OF MAN.
- CHAPTER I. The Evidence of the Descent of Man from someLower Form.
- CHAPTER II. Comparison of the Mental Powers of Man and theLower Animals.
- CHAPTER III. Comparison of the Mental Powers of Man and theLower Animals—continued.
- CHAPTER IV. On the Manner of Development of Man from somelower Form.
- CHAPTER V. On the Development of the Intellectual and MoralFaculties during Primeval and Civilised T
- CHAPTER VI. On the Affinities and Genealogy of Man.
- CHAPTER VII. On the Races of Man.
- Part II.—SEXUAL SELECTION.
- CHAPTER VIII. Principles of Sexual Selection.
- CHAPTER IX. Secondary Sexual Characters in the Lower Classes ofthe Animal Kingdom.
- CHAPTER X. Secondary Sexual Characters of Insects.
- CHAPTER XI. Insects, continued.—Order Lepidoptera.
- LIST OF POPULAR WORKS.
The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Descent of Man and
Selection in Relation to Sex, V. I. by Charles Darwin.
DESCENT OF MAN,
SELECTION IN RELATION TO SEX.
By CHARLES DARWIN, M.A., F.R.S., &c.
IN TWO VOLUMES.—Vol. I.
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.
[The right of Translation is reserved.]
BY THE SAME AUTHOR.
LONDON: PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET, AND CHARING CROSS.
ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION; or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life; Fifth Edition (Tenth Thousand), with Additions and Corrections. 1869. Murray.
THE VARIATION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS UNDER DOMESTICATION. In two vols. With Illustrations. 1868. Murray.
ON THE VARIOUS CONTRIVANCES by which BRITISH AND FOREIGN ORCHIDS ARE FERTILISED BY INSECTS; and on the Good Effects of Crossing. With numerous Woodcuts. Murray.
A NATURALIST‘S VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD; or, A Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries visited during the voyage of H.M.S. ‘Beagle,’ under the command of Captain FitzRoy, R.N. Eleventh Thousand. Murray.
ON THE STRUCTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CORAL REEFS. Smith, Elder, & Co.
GEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON VOLCANIC ISLANDS. Smith, Elder, & Co.
GEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON SOUTH AMERICA. Smith, Elder & Co.
A MONOGRAPH OF THE CIRRIPEDIA. With numerous Illustrations. 2 vols. 8vo. Hardwicke.
ON THE MOVEMENTS AND HABITS OF CLIMBING PLANTS. With Woodcuts. Williams & Norgate.
THE DESCENT OF MAN;
SELECTION IN RELATION TO SEX.
The nature of the following work will be best understood by a brief account of how it came to be written. During many years I collected notes on the origin or descent of man, without any intention of publishing on the subject, but rather with the determination not to publish, as I thought that I should thus only add to the prejudices against my views. It seemed to me sufficient to indicate, in the first edition of my ‘Origin of Species,’ that by this work “light would be thrown on the origin of man and his history;” and this implies that man must be included with other organic beings in any general conclusion respecting his manner of appearance on this earth. Now the case wears a wholly different aspect. When a naturalist like Carl Vogt ventures to say in his address as President of the National Institution of Geneva (1869), “personne, en Europe au moins, n’ose plus soutenir la création indépendante et de toutes pièces, des espèces,” it is manifest that at least a large number of naturalists must admit that species are the modified descendants of other species;2 and this especially holds good with the younger and rising naturalists. The greater number accept the agency of natural selection; though some urge, whether with justice the future must decide, that I have greatly overrated its importance. Of the older and honoured chiefs in natural science, many unfortunately are still opposed to evolution in every form.
In consequence of the views now adopted by most naturalists, and which will ultimately, as in every other case, be followed by other men, I have been led to put together my notes, so as to see how far the general conclusions arrived at in my former works were applicable to man. This seemed all the more desirable as I had never deliberately applied these views to a species taken singly. When we confine our attention to any one form, we are deprived of the weighty arguments derived from the nature of the affinities which connect together whole groups of organisms—their geographical distribution in past and present times, and their geological succession. The homological structure, embryological development, and rudimentary organs of a species, whether it be man or any other animal, to which our attention may be directed, remain to be considered; but these great classes of facts afford, as it appears to me, ample and conclusive evidence in favour of the principle of gradual evolution. The strong support derived from the other arguments should, however, always be kept before the mind.
The sole object of this work is to consider, firstly, whether man, like every other species, is descended from some pre-existing form; secondly, the manner of3 his development; and thirdly, the value of the differences between the so-called races of man. As I shall confine myself to these points, it will not be necessary to describe in detail the differences between the several races—an enormous subject which has been fully discussed in many valuable works. The high antiquity of man has recently been demonstrated by the labours of a host of eminent men, beginning with M. Boucher de Perthes; and this is the indispensable basis for understanding his origin. I shall, therefore, take this conclusion for granted, and may refer my readers to the admirable treatises of Sir Charles Lyell, Sir John Lubbock, and others. Nor shall I have occasion to do more than to allude to the amount of difference between man and the anthropomorphous apes; for Prof. Huxley, in the opinion of most competent judges, has conclusively shewn that in every single visible character man differs less from the higher apes than these do from the lower members of the same order of Primates.
This work contains hardly any original facts in regard to man; but as the conclusions at which I arrived, after drawing up a rough draft, appeared to me interesting, I thought that they might interest others. It has often and confidently been asserted, that man’s origin can never be known: but ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge: it is those who know little, and not those who know much, who so positively assert that this or that problem will never be solved by science. The conclusion that man is the co-descendant with other species of some ancient, lower, and extinct form, is not in any degree new. La4marck long ago came to this conclusion, which has lately been maintained by several eminent naturalists and philosophers; for instance by Wallace, Huxley, Lyell, Vogt, Lubbock, Büchner, Rolle, &c.,1 and especially by Häckel. This last naturalist, besides his great work, 'Generelle Morphologie ‘(1866), has recently (1868, with a second edit. in 1870), published his ‘Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte, ‘in which he fully discusses the genealogy of man. If this work had appeared before my essay had been written, I should probably never have completed it. Almost all the conclusions at which I have arrived I find confirmed by this naturalist, whose knowledge on many points is much fuller than mine. Wherever I have added any fact or view from Prof. Häckel’s writings, I give his authority in the text, other statements I leave as they originally stood in my manuscript, occasionally giving in the foot-notes references to his works, as a confirmation of the more doubtful or interesting points.
During many years it has seemed to me highly probable
that sexual selection has played an important
part in differentiating the races of man; but in my
6‘Origin of Species’ (first edition, p. 199) I contented myself by merely alluding to this belief. When I came to apply this view to man, I found it indispensable to treat the whole subject in full detail.2 Consequently the second part of the present work, treating of sexual selection, has extended to an inordinate length, compared with the first part; but this could not be avoided.
I had intended adding to the present volumes an essay on the expression of the various emotions by man and the lower animals. My attention was called to this subject many years ago by Sir Charles Bell’s admirable work. This illustrious anatomist maintains that man is endowed with certain muscles solely for the sake of expressing his emotions. As this view is obviously opposed to the belief that man is descended from some other and lower form, it was necessary for me to consider it. I likewise wished to ascertain how far the emotions are expressed in the same manner by the different races of man. But owing to the length of the present work, I have thought it better to reserve my essay, which is partially completed, for separate publication.