Michael Hardt - Biography
Michael Hardt, Ph.D., born in Washington DC in 1960, is a political philosopher and literary theorist currently based at Duke University, North Carolina. While pursuing an undergraduate degree in engineering, Michael Hardt worked for solar energy companies in the United States and Italy. After college, in the early 1980s he became a part of the Sanctuary Movement, which helped refugees from Guatemala and El Salvador enter and stay in the United States with the aim of contesting the US funded wars. In the mid-1980s he became interested in radical Italian politics, met Antonio Negri, and began working together with him.
Michael Hardt's recent writings focus primarily on deciphering various aspects of globalization. His most famous works, Empire (2000) and Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire (2004) were written in collaboration with Antonio Negri and, according to some, became major events in political and critical theory. In 2009, these two works will be accompanied by the next part of the trilogy entitled Commonwealth. In 2012 Hardt and Negri published Declaration, a pamphlet addressed to the encampments and occupations that began in 2011. Michael Hardt is also the author of Gilles Deleuze: An Apprenticeship in Philosophy (1993), Labor of Dionysus: A Critique of the State Form (co-written with Antonio Negri, 1994), Radical Thought in Italy (coedited with Paolo Virno, 1996), and The Jameson Reader (coedited with Kathi Weeks, 2000).
In Empire, Hardt and Antonio Negri offered the analysis of the functioning of current global power structures due to the transformation of imperialism and American dominance which happened after the Vietnam war. In this new state of affairs, the sovereignty of the nation state has declined and a new form of sovereignty was created, which they name the 'empire'. Following the poststructuralist model set by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, the empire is seen as being characterized by flexible, mobile boundaries and hybrid identities, as a decentered global network and a dynamic pattern of breaks and flows. In this network of coordinated collaboration, no nation state is really sovereign anymore and even the most powerful nation is not able to control the global order.
Therefore, the main question Hardt and Negri were interested in was to try to define the new authority that guarantees the long-term survival of capital after the relative decline of the nation state which functioned as its main guarantee of sustainability. According to them, this authority is the empire, with no center or the binary opposition of the outside and inside. Further on, Hardt and Negri formulate the most relevant task today to be the mapping of the geography of global power divisions where power is seen as transcendental and not transcendent. Only through this we might reach some of the possible answers to the question, 'what forms of contestation of power are possible today?' As Hardt and Negri remind us, the most dangerous thing would be to fight the enemy that no longer exists.
Upon completing Empire, Hardt and Negri felt the need to further elaborate on the subject or form of an alternative. Therefore, in Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire they examine the possibilities of cooperative resistance to the new global order. Hardt and Negri decided to work upon this question by rethinking the concept of the working class which they refuse to see as a homogeneous group. They formulate the need for a political party that will have a form of a horizontal network structure without a centralized point of decision or leadership. For this, they have found the inspiration in several organizations created after the 1960s in order to defend the rights of marginalized groups such as the black power, civil rights movement, homosexual and queer organizations. Established in such a way with no centralized power, these organizations raised the question of the possibilities of multiplicity to act together.
According to Hardt and Negri, the power of resistance is much stronger than what we might think and if held the right way, any tool can become one's weapon of revolution. Instead of trying to answer the question of what is to be done, they propose answering the question of what are people already doing, as a way to create a particular catalog of ideas for revolutionary practices. According to them, the main question about what democracy is today and what it could be in a global world will remain unanswered and in the realm of fantasy unless there is a subject that can fill it. Therefore, the new subject of democracy is exactly this entity they named 'multitude', and the democracy of the future can be saved only if there is a freedom to determine what are we to become.
In their third part of the trilogy entitled Commonwealth, Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri offer a framework in which to restore the meaning of the many corrupted concepts of political vocabulary. They will further elaborate their previous suggestions for the social change that can be obtained by using the current forms of class oppression by joining it with the necessity to rethink the common in communism in order for this change to actually happen.